Class of 2022 earns the first Workforce Readiness and Career Technical Education diplomas

Workforce Readiness and Career Technical Education (CTE) Diploma
Workforce Readiness and Career Technical Education (CTE) Diploma

More than 6,000 Idaho students will qualify for the first Workforce Readiness and Career Technical Education (CTE) diploma.

The 2021 Idaho State Legislature created the diploma to acknowledge how CTE programs enhance students’ high school experience and prepare them for the demands of today’s employers. The class of 2022 is the first to earn this designation.

“Idaho employers are increasingly seeking an educational system that better prepares students for the workforce,” said Sen. Dave Lent, R-Idaho Falls. “Since most of our population does not graduate from college, it makes sense to focus on the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for success in the workplace as part of high school graduation.”

To earn the CTE diploma, juniors or seniors must complete all graduation requirements established by the Idaho State Board of Education. In addition, they must complete a capstone course for their CTE pathway, pass a technical skills assessment, pass a workplace readiness assessment, and earn all SkillStack® microcertifications for their pathway or an approved industry certification.

“This new diploma is an opportunity for students to explore high-skill, high-demand occupations in Idaho and earn college credit while still in high school,” said Clay Long, state administrator for the Idaho Division of Career Technical Education. “In the process, they earn employer-recognized certifications, develop technical and employability skills, demonstrate college and career readiness, and enter the world confident in their ability to meet their employer’s needs.”

“Since most of our population does not graduate from college, it makes sense to focus on the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for success in the workplace as part of high school graduation.”

Sen. Dave Lent, R-Idaho Falls

The Workforce Readiness and CTE diploma also helps employers identify candidates who possess the skills necessary to succeed in the workplace and reduce the time and money invested in training new employees.

“This diploma is an example of how education is moving back to relevance and practical application,” said Lent. “Better preparing students for the transition to successful employment also significantly reduces employee turnover.”

Long agrees the diploma benefits students and employers and notes it will help make CTE courses more attractive to students and parents. “Through CTE, we’re training students for well-paying jobs they can find right here in Idaho, which helps employers address critical labor shortages,” said Long.“It’s a win-win-win for the student, their employer, and the state of Idaho.”

Veteran Firefighter Appointed to Lead Idaho Fire Service Training

Karine Johnson
Karine Johnson
Karine Johnson

Karine Johnson has been appointed as program director of Fire Service Training (FST), effective April 18, 2022. Johnson has more than 20 years of experience in fire service in positions including firefighter, deputy state fire marshal, and deputy fire chief. In addition, she served as program manager for FST when it was previously housed at the Idaho Division of Career Technical Education (IDCTE) and has spent many years working as an instructor and evaluator.

Johnson holds an associate degree in engineering technology from Oregon Polytechnic Institute, an associate degree in fire service technology from Boise State University, and a dual-emphasis bachelor’s degree in fire service technology and communication and management from Boise State University. In addition, Johnson is a certified fire investigator. Johnson has been helping to transfer International Fire Service Accreditation Congress (IFSAC) accreditation from the College of Eastern Idaho, where the program was previously housed, and ensure the continuation of services since mid-December.

“Her multi-faceted experience in all aspects of the fire service, including training and certification in both career and volunteer capacities, means she understands the needs and demands of the fire community,” said Clay Long, state administrator for IDCTE. “Karine has also taken the initiative to improve the certificate and certification issuing process.”

Her multi-faceted experience in all aspects of the fire service, including training and certification in both career and volunteer capacities, means she understands the needs and demands of the fire community

–Clay Long

Jerry Holenbeck, FST advisory council chairman and fire operations division chief with the Idaho National Laboratory, echoes Long’s sentiments on Johnson’s appointment.

“Karine has a passion for the fire service. I know she’ll listen to the fire chiefs and work with us to improve and simplify processes,” said Holenbeck. “Ultimately, this collaboration will mean we’re better able to turn out trained, qualified firefighters to protect and serve our communities.”

Fiscal year 2023 budget signed into law

Idaho Funds

The Idaho Division of Career Technical Education’s (IDCTE) fiscal year 2023 budget became law last week.

Our budget included several line items, which will be added to our FY 2023 base budget. These items included:

  1. $702,600 increase to secondary program added-cost funds.
  2. $127,000 increase to the Idaho Quality Program Standards for additional grants.
  3. $113,900 increase for an additional program quality manager position (including full benefits).
  4. $1,020,000 for postsecondary program expansion.

Additionally, JFAC approved a $10 million investment recommended by the governor to continue expanding career technical education in Idaho. While the funds are allocated differently than the governor’s recommendation, it still provides a significant one-time influx of funds to help support CTE. One significant change is the exclusion of the creation of a $5 million fund that would have allowed the Division to fund new secondary programs the school year following their approval.

JFAC’s motion included a $4 million allocation each for secondary and postsecondary expansion and modernization, $1.5 million for developing and building a data management system that integrates with ISEE, and $500,000 for secondary program prioritization and alignment.

SkillStack® and self-improvement are resident’s formula for success

SkillStack

Self-improvement has always been important to Daniel Dives. When Dives worked for Metro by T-Mobile, he always strove to become a better manager and salesperson. But it wasn’t until he read “Unlimited Power” by Tony Robbins and “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People” by Stephen Covey that he unlocked his potential and realized that business wasn’t about increasing your sales or moving product; it was about developing yourself spiritually, mentally, and physically and teaching others to do the same.


It’s no surprise that Dives was one of 169 unique learners who earned the stacked Administrative Functions microcertification in SkillStack® last year. What is surprising is that he earned it at the Idaho State Correctional Center in Kuna.


Dives is one of 2,777 residents of the Idaho Department of Correction (IDOC) taking advantage of the opportunity to learn industry-recognized credentials and certifications while in residence in 2021. IDCTE partners with IDOC and Workforce Training Centers at each technical college to validate the credentials residents earn.


“Residents can leverage the skills they’re learning to transition to the workforce,” said Taylor Stump, IDCTE’s SkillStack® and performance management coordinator. “Because the credits are transcribed through the technical colleges—and because they’re demonstrating skills aligned with industry standards and credentials—they have a lot of credibility that can help residents upon reentry.”


In addition to learning skills he can use to pursue his career goals upon his release, the classes Dives has taken while in residence have also helped him build his self-confidence. Dives, who has an associate degree in criminal justice, never learned to use Microsoft Office programs, so he’d skip classes if he had to use PowerPoint or wouldn’t speak up in meetings if he had to present.


“When I worked at Metro, we had to run reports two or three times a week. I didn’t know how to create a report, so a lot of things didn’t look right, but they let me wing it because I was good at other things,” said Dives. “As a manager, I’d have rather had my reports look more professional. Had I known then what I know now, I’d have been more confident going to a meeting and saying, ‘This is what I think.’ Before, I would’ve stayed in the background a bit more because I wasn’t confident enough to put myself forward.”


Though Dives has always known he wanted to be an entrepreneur, he’s also taken electrical wiring, electrical systems, and masonry courses through IDOC.

“I wasn’t really planning on going into construction, but it was something positive to do. I like learning, and I like the educational environment,” said Dives. “if you’re going to take classes, you might as well give it your all.”

Daniel Dives


Dives found he liked the hands-on nature of the construction classes and even earned certifications in electrical wiring, electrical systems technology and masonry from the National Center for Construction Education and Research.


“These classes helped me realize I have options and be more open-minded about my future,” said Dives. “There are some guys who’ve been released and come back three times in the five years I’ve been here, and it’s because they don’t have any plans. They don’t have any plans because they don’t think they can do something different. But when you start to realize you are intelligent, you realize you can do these things. You can take these classes. You can have a different future.”

Statewide summary: Over 18,000 students have earned microcertifications

Statewide micro certifications

Leadership Institute helps business educator achieve career goal, promote CTE

Leadership Institute graduating class
Pam Kantack
Pam Kantack

Twelve years ago, Shelley High School business educator Pam Kantack was a big proponent of every student needing a college degree—until she saw what CTE programs were doing for students.

“I didn’t really understand what CTE was until I got into the schools,” said Kantack. “There are all these different pathways that allow students to explore what they love without spending a lot of money to get the training they need to enter the workforce.” 

Since then, Kantack has been an ardent supporter of CTE programs and was eager to help more administrators, teachers, parents, and students see their value. So when she received an email from the Idaho Division of Career Technical Education (IDCTE) promoting its Leadership Institute program in 2017, she thought it would be a good way to champion CTE—and achieve her goal of becoming an administrator.

“I didn’t think I would be accepted, but I thought our school could benefit from more leadership on the CTE side, so I applied anyway,” said Kantack.

To her surprise, she was accepted. Over the next three years, Kantack balanced her responsibilities as a business educator with the requirements of the Leadership Institute program, which included attending seminars on state and national CTE policy, completing the Idaho Association of School Administrators Project Leadership program, creating a professional development plan to obtain an Idaho CTE administrator’s endorsement, and attending state and national meetings to expand her knowledge of CTE. Kantack said the state and national policy initiative was the most helpful of all the opportunities Leadership Institute provided.

“My overall goal was to make CTE a priority in our district, but I didn’t know how or who to talk to,” said Kantack. “Through Leadership Institute, I gained the confidence to talk to legislators, tell them what was going on in our classrooms, and ask for their support.”

Pam Kantack

Though the time commitment was at times intense, Kantack says the most challenging thing about the program was developing confidence in her leadership skills. 

“It probably took until the second year of the program for me to realize I had the capability to be a leader, accept that power, and move forward with it,” said Kantack. “It was truly life-changing. I didn’t consider myself a leader before Leadership Institute, but my leadership qualities have tripled since I started.”

Kantack used her newfound confidence to ask her administration if she could teach part-time and spend the rest of her time serving as the school’s CTE administrator; he agreed. Kantack has also used what she learned through Leadership Institute in her new role as president-elect of Career Technical Educators of Idaho, the professional association for career technical educators, administrators, and stakeholders in Idaho. 

Now that Kantack has graduated from Leadership Institute, she’s more driven than ever to elevate the perception of CTE and advocate for a career technical school in the Shelley School District.  “Now everybody in my school knows what CTE means, and they respect it,” said Kantack. “When people see what’s going on and what we’re producing, it’s making a difference.”

Hard work, determination, translate into career in phlebotomy

Maria Lopez
Maria Lopez
Maria Lopez

Maria Lopez always knew she wanted to be a nurse. In Mexico City, where she lived before coming to the United States, she even began taking classes. While Lopez didn’t complete her studies, she never abandoned her dream. So when Lopez saw a flyer at the Mexican store advertising the Integrated Certified Nursing Assistant (I-CNA) course at the College of Southern Idaho (CSI), she knew this was an opportunity to make her dream a reality. 

At CSI, the I-CNA program is offered through a partnership between its College and Career Readiness (CCR) and Workforce Development Center programs and the Health Science and Human Services department. It is designed to help non-native English speakers learn or improve their English while pursuing their CNA certification. Participants include English-language-learning U.S. citizens, refugees, immigrants, and foreign nationals from various national backgrounds, including countries in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America. 

“Because the program integrates English language and civics instruction into the standardized CNA curriculum, it takes a whole semester to complete, as opposed to the eight weeks of the general population version of the CNA class at CSI,” said Philip Valenta, industry training coordinator for CCR. “Otherwise, our students are completing the same clinicals and exams as the students of any other CNA section offered on campus.”

The I-CNA program provides a dedicated English Language Acquisition (ELA) instructor to help students improve their language skills and support them during their CNA instruction. The program also includes support outside the classroom, including securing funding assistance, figuring out transportation and childcare options, and creating study groups. And because the cohorts are small—about 10 students are served each semester—CCR can follow up with program graduates to see how they’re doing, personally and professionally. The program was perfect for Lopez, so she enrolled on Jan. 10, 2021.

Lopez, who has been in the U.S. for 26 years, found the customer service and guest relations skills she acquired working at a casino, first as a housekeeper, then as a desk clerk, translated well to being a CNA. But studying medical terminology in her second language proved to be particularly challenging. Fortunately, her children, ages 17, 35, and 38, have been supportive and encouraging.

“They’ve been incredible. I’m 56, so going back to school was a little hard, especially at my age. But when I begin something, I don’t stop,” said Lopez. “Sometimes, I’d take a picture of something I didn’t understand and send it to my daughter-in-law and have her explain it to me.”

Lopez also studied with her youngest daughter.

“She’ll be graduating early in February, and she wants to be a CNA, too,” said Lopez. “She helps me a lot, and I always practice with her.”

In addition to support from her family, Lopez also appreciates the help she received from her instructors at CSI. 

“I had the best teachers. Every patient is different, and they showed me so many ways to get the job done and make sure every patient has a good experience,” said Lopez. “They made everything look so easy, but they also made me feel like I could do it. They were so encouraging.”

Maria Lopez

Through hard work and determination, Lopez finished the I-CNA program in June and passed her exams in August. After getting hired as a CNA at St. Luke’s Magic Valley in September, Lopez decided to take the 80-hour phlebotomy course at CSI, which she completed in December. She continues to improve her skills—in both nursing and English.

“When I was taking the CNA course, I had to read some chapters four or five times in English and one or two times in Spanish. I even downloaded a translation app on my phone to help me,” said Lopez. “But now, in my phlebotomy class, I need minimal translation to understand.”

Lopez loves her new job, but she hasn’t forgotten the importance of customer service and hard work.  “It doesn’t matter what language you speak,” said Lopez. “It matters how you do your job, how you handle difficult situations, and how you choose to care for people.”

Relationships, certifications lead to 100% job placement for Diesel Technology program

Diesel Technology program
Diesel Technology program
Diesel Technology program, COSSA

Diesel mechanic John Montana knows firsthand how difficult it is to find skilled workers, especially for in-demand professions. In fact, his inability to find and hire qualified workers is what drove him to become a teacher in the first place.

“I couldn’t hire decent help,” said Montana. “I was training new employees on the job anyway for about 10 or 11 years, so when Canyon-Owyhee School Service Agency’s (COSSA) old diesel technology teacher retired in 1999, I figured I’d give teaching a try.”

Though Montana started teaching part-time, he soon discovered he loved working with the kids and was teaching full-time by his second year. In the two decades since, Montana has cultivated relationships with about a dozen farm implement companies, several of whom employ Montana’s former students. These relationships benefit students and businesses alike—in many ways.

First, industry partners like John Deere, Kenworth, Peterbilt, Agri-Service, Caterpillar, and Mountain View Equipment are always willing to drop off equipment and provide opportunities for students to develop their skills via job shadowing and internships. They know they’ll be able to hire skilled workers from the talent pool Montana produces, so they’re willing to help his students develop career readiness skills by conducting mock job interviews or reviewing student resumes.

Second, industry partners provide additional feedback about new workers’ skills and what needs to change or be updated in the program to prepare students for their careers. This also helps ensure Montana himself stays current.

“That’s one positive thing about these kids staying local; they’re an excellent reference for me,” said Montana. “I don’t get to work out in the field like I used to, so I bounce stuff off my former students all the time. I know I can call any of them up and ask, ‘What have you run across?’ or ‘We’ve got this truck in here that’s doing this and this; have you seen anything like that?’”

Most importantly, these relationships have resulted in 100% job placement over the past 14 years.

“Because the program teaches to NATEF standards, students can earn industry-recognized certifications in electrical engines, transmissions, engine repair, brakes, and preventative maintenance,” said Montana. “Students can also earn their OSHA 10 card and SP2 Safety and Pollution Prevention training certificates while still in high school. That means students may not need a lot of on-the-job training after they graduate.”

This is a huge advantage to not only students but their employers as well.

“If there are 50 applicants for a job and you have these certificates—especially the safety certificates—you’ll move to the top of the list because it cuts down on the number of hours an employer has to train you, and you can get right to work,” said Montana.

Patricia Frahm

COSSA’s principal, Patricia Frahm, says the importance of this foundation can’t be overstated. “If a student walks out of a CTE program with these certifications, they can walk into a job immediately, and if they decide to go on to college, it gives them a skill they can use to pay their way through school,” said Frahm. “They also learn work ethic and accountability in the process—things that can help them for the rest of their lives.”

High school fire program helps fill workforce need in the Portneuf Valley

Fire Fighting Program Portneuf Valley
Fire Fighting Program Portneuf Valley
High school fire program, Portneuf Valley

When veteran firefighter Mark Brood agreed to do a presentation on volunteer firefighting at Pocatello High School in 2015, he had no idea where it would lead.

“Right after my presentation, I got hauled down to the principal’s office,” said Brood. “Lisa (Delonas) told me they had a first responder academy, but they didn’t have an EMT or a fire component. She asked if I would be interested in helping get it up and running. I guess it was a case of being in the right place at the right time.”

In his 29 years in the fire service, Brood had trained a lot of new firefighters, so he was up for the challenge. As an active fire chief with the North Bannock Fire Department, he could also rely on his industry connections to establish the program. Fortunately, Brood received much support from Superintendent Dr. Douglas Howell, the school board, the school district, and the fire community. Throughout Eastern Idaho, donations poured in, including turnouts (the protective gear worn by firefighters) from the city of Chubbuck, various equipment from the city of Pocatello, and fire hoses from the Idaho Falls Fire Department.

One of the reasons the community rallied around the program is the growing need for first responders and the fact that so many small communities in Idaho rely on the service of volunteer firefighters.

“In these communities, shopkeepers, farmers, ranchers, and neighbors just drop whatever they’re doing when the bell rings and hop on the fire truck as it goes by,” said Rhonda Naftz, career technical education administrator for School District No. 25. “It’s like training them to fulfill their civic duty. This CTE program can bring this service to smaller communities.”

The Pocatello/Chubbuck School District renovated a building to house the career technical school program and purchased a retired fire engine using Perkins funds. Brood built all the other props necessary for the program, so it was ready to accept its first students when the 2016-2017 school year began.

“When you walk into the classroom, I wanted it to feel like you were walking into a fire department,” said Brood. “I teach to International Fire Service Accreditation Congress (IFSAC) standards. We start each class with the textbook and didactics, then get into the skill work. We try to do everything just like in a fire department, including breaking the class into three platoons, each with its own captain.”

Every day, Brood’s students go through all the equipment to make sure it’s ready and even participate in timed drills, like putting on all their gear in under three minutes. Just like in a real fire department, they have competitions to see which platoon finishes first. Students also can assist on calls, do a ride-along and practice practical skills towards the end of the program.

“The need for first responders is only going to increase as Idaho’s population grows, and this program helps to fill some of that need,” said Brood. “Now that we’re six years into the program, we’re starting to get success stories, which is really cool. I love it when you see a student achieve their goal, or even better, achieve something they didn’t think they could do.”

Mark Brood

Everything about the program is designed to ensure students are prepared to be first responders upon graduation. For example, Brood follows the Candidate Physical Ability Test curriculum, the recognized standard for measuring an individual’s ability to handle the physical demands of being a firefighter. Also, all students earn the National Heart Association CPR for Healthcare Providers certification. Finally, most students take the firefighting course as juniors and the EMT course as seniors because most fire departments require EMT certification.

Upon completion, students have received training to earn their IFSAC and National Wildfire Coordinating Group certifications in Hazardous Materials, Extrication, and Wildland Fire. Students still have to take the industry test, which involves the use of a specialized burn trailer. Students need to be 18 and graduated from high school to complete this component; this activity is usually completed the summer following graduation.

As proof of Brood’s students’ achievements, the SkillsUSA chapter he advises swept the podium during the 2019* state competition. After graduation, many of the students begin their careers with municipal or volunteer fire departments, the Bureau of Land Management, or the U.S. Forest Service, and one student went on to graduate from the Idaho Police Officer Standards Training.

LCSC grad takes over Collision Repair Technology program

Collision Repair Technology Program
Collision Repair Technology Program
Collision Repair Technology Program

Growing up in the unincorporated town of Laclede, Idaho, Luke Thomas didn’t know what he wanted to do after high school—but he did know he loved working on cars.

“We had a neighbor who worked on cars, and he helped me restore my first vehicle,” said Thomas.

From then on, Thomas was hooked. A family friend who taught at Lewis-Clark State College (LCSC) recommended its two-year Collision Repair Technology program. The program’s reputation, hands-on application, small class size, and one-on-one time with the instructor all appealed to Thomas, who graduated with an Associate of Applied Science in 2008.

After graduation, Thomas’ career was humming along. He had his own repair shop and worked on custom restorations, but he wanted to explore a different facet of the industry. Around that time, Thomas’ professor, Clarence Griffin, decided to transition to teaching part-time, so Thomas saw an opportunity to teach in the same program from which he graduated.

“I was ready for a change and the opportunity to teach the collision program arose at the right time,” said Thomas. “It sounded like a fun way to change things up and help make a difference in the industry.”

During his first three years teaching, Thomas was grateful to be teaching alongside Griffin. And for the most part, Thomas kept the program the same as when he completed it. During the first year, core instruction is provided, and during the second year, students receive in-depth instruction in more complex systems and hands-on training in mock and customer projects.

“Because it’s a two-year program, students can go beyond just learning metal straightening or crash repairs,” said Thomas. “That means we can focus on more advanced skills, and they can get exposure to more facets of the collision repair industry. They’re qualified for a broad spectrum of industry segments by the end of the program, including some outside the collision field, like aviation refinishing, boat manufacturing refinishing, heavy trucks collision repair, custom cars, and hot rods.”

Luke Thomas

A major component of the program is completing an eight-week internship with a local shop. Many students have jobs lined up after graduation at the shop where they completed their internship, which many keep until they decide to move on. The internship allows employers to tap into a talent pipeline to fill their needed positions, which Thomas says translates into more support for the program. Body shop owners have donated vehicles, parts, and uniforms or provided scholarships for the students, and vendors will come in for demonstrations or product training.

Six years later, Thomas has found what he was looking for as a career technical educator. Teaching gave him the freedom to continue running his repair shop and custom restoration business while having more time to pursue other interests. It’s also given him a more holistic perspective of the industry he loves, deepening his appreciation for it.

Above all, Thomas says teaching has allowed him to share his passion with others. “I like seeing someone make something of themselves,” said Thomas. “It takes a lot of work to complete the two-year program, and it’s very rewarding to see a student who completed the program working in the industry and enjoying it.”

HVAC program provides seamless transition from secondary to postsecondary

North Idaho College HVAC program
HVAC program
HVAC Program, NIC

The week before the fall 2017 semester began, Sean Sater received a call from the Trades and Industry Division Chair at North Idaho College (NIC), Doug Anderson. Anderson wondered if Sater would be willing to teach the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning technician (HVAC) class; if Sater said no, the program would be shut down.

Fortunately, Sater, who has 22 years of experience in the field, knew firsthand how much the Coeur d’Alene-Spokane area needed well-trained HVAC technicians. He’d also considered cutting back his hours at HollisterStier, where he worked as a consultant, so he agreed.

“I thought it was a great way to pay it forward and help the next generation change their stars,” said Sater.

Though his first year was a baptism by fire of sorts, Sater enjoyed teaching. So when Anderson, who also served on the board of Kootenai Technical Education Campus (KTEC), asked if Sater would be interested in teaching HVAC at the secondary level the following year, he again agreed.

“I was head over heels to get a hold of them early and get them trained up right,” said Sater. “When we first sat down, we didn’t want the HVAC program to be a huge expense, so we decided it would be best to let the KTEC students use the NIC lab. It’s within walking distance, and we didn’t have to bring in more equipment, which helped us strengthen the partnership between the secondary and postsecondary programs. It was a win-win-win for the students, the schools, and the taxpayers.”

Next, Sater had to strike a balance between offering enough dual credit to make the HVAC pathway appealing to secondary students but not reducing the course load so much that students wouldn’t be considered full-time students and not qualify for financial aid once they transferred to NIC. Sater settled on offering the three-credit HVAC 165 course for his KTEC students, making it easy for them to transition to the second semester’s coursework at NIC.

Sater’s unique position at KTEC and NIC means he can ensure his students have a seamless path from secondary to postsecondary to career. And because there is such a demand for HVAC technicians, employers are eager to speak to his classes and offer opportunities for his students to job shadow or do ride-alongs with their employees.

“It gives them a chance to see if an employer’s culture fits what they’re looking for,” said Sater. “They can talk with industry professionals and see how they operate, keep their vans, and figure out if it would be a good fit—and they get paid to do so.”

Sean Sater

These interactions with employers mean most postsecondary students in their second and final semester know where they want to work and have a job lined up after graduation. The jobs Saters’ students walk into don’t exactly pay minimum wage, either.

“They’re paying $9,000 for books and tuition and can be making $52,000 a year to start, without the baggage of student debt,” said Sater. “That’s a pretty solid return on investment.”

At the end of the day, Sater loves knowing he’s setting future professionals up for success while helping to meet industry needs.

“I love the feeling of getting through to someone,” said Sater. “They might ride the struggle bus for a while, but when things come together, they learn it and burn it into their memory. It’s priceless to see the light come on.”